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【每週成語】
痛心疾首

楊愛民

成語:痛心疾首(TONG XIN JI SHOU): To hate deeply; to feel extremely bitter about somebody or something. Heartache and headache with deep hatred and resentment; to be very distrusted about something; detest thoroughly; to resent deeply; feel deeply grieved; deplore greatly with bitter hatred.
出處:左傳。
釋義:形容一個人對另外的人或事十分怨恨,一見到它就憤怒難過。類似於:恨之入骨;不共戴天。
故事:春秋時代,秦國與晉國互相以婚姻聯盟(秦穆公夫人是晉獻公的女兒。後世稱為‘秦晉之好’,源出於此。)秦穆公又曾三次替晉國安定君位。晉公子重耳流亡外國19年,也因為秦國之助,得以回國即位為晉文公。但是,由於兩個國境相接,雙方都要發展自己的地盤及擴張勢力範圍,所以兩國的衝突是難免的。從秦穆公到齊桓公三代中,秦晉兩國戰爭不斷。
秦厲公即位後,又與秦國發生邊境糾紛。於是兩個君主相約在令狐(今天的山西猗氏縣)會面。在那裡他們訂立了和平條約。可是,齊桓公回國後立即毀約,要與楚國聯盟攻打秦國邊界的小國白迪,它是晉國的保護國,也與晉國聯姻。楚國答應了秦國的要求。可是,秦國卻派人對白迪說, “晉國要攻打你們。”楚國也派人對晉國說,“秦國背約,與楚國修好,要對付晉國。”白迪和楚國都洞悉秦國的用心並痛恨秦國的背信棄義。晉國派呂相去和秦國斷交,對秦國說,“各國諸侯都知道秦國唯利是圖,不守信用,所以大家都願意與晉國親近友好。現在,晉國已經與各國諸侯做好準備,共同攻打秦國。如果秦國願意訂立盟約,我可以勸各國諸侯退兵。否則,我們將與諸侯共同對付秦國。”
用法:張三因為忙於事業,只管把錢拿給兒子去補習。可是,兒子卻把錢去買毒品吸食。張三知道了真相,真是“痛心疾首”,把兒子痛打一頓後,送警察局處理。
故事英譯:During the Era of Spring and Autumn, Kingdom Qin and Kingdom Jin were allied friendly by marriages between the two royal families, (the wife of Duke Mu of Qin was the daughter of Duke Xian of Jin; afterward, the idiom—alliance between the two families by marriage—comes from this story). Duke Mu of Qin had three times to help stabilizing the thrones of Jin. Prince Zhong Er of Jin, after being forced to wandering abroad for 19 years, and then was helped by Duke Mu of Qin to return homeland to ascend the throne as Duke Wen of Jin. But because of the bordering each other, both kingdoms wanted to expand their territories and sphere of influence, so the conflictions of the two nations, despite their marriage-alliance relationship, could not be avoid. There were countless battles between the two nations in the three generations from Duke Mu of Qin to Duke Huan of Qin.
As Duke Li of Jin enthroned, a border-trouble with Qin was encountered, so both rulers made an appointment that they would have a meeting at Ling Hu (Yi Shi County, Shan-Xi today); and they made a peace agreement. However, Duke Huan of Qin breached the contract immediately after returning homeland, and would ally with Kingdom Chu to attack a small state called Bai Di which was located at the border near Qin and was protected state of Jin and had marriage-alliance relationship with Jin. Kingdom Chu agreed to unite with Jin to seize Bai Di. But Kingdom Qin sent the envoy to Bai Di and said, “Kingdom Jin would attack you.” Anyway, Kingdom Chu also sent men to Jin and said to Jin, “Kingdom Qin had breached contract and allied Chu to attack Jin.” Both Bai Di and Chu had understood thoroughly the intention of Qin, and detested Qin’s breaching words and gave up its obligations. Kingdom Jin sent Premier Lu to Qin for talking about cutting relationship with Qin, and Lu said to Qin’s envoy, “Vassals of every nations all know that Kingdom Qin is intent on profit and doesn’t keep its words, so all states would like to be close and friend to Jin, and Kingdom Jin had allied with vassals of friend nations to complete battle-reparations for fighting against Qin together. If Kingdom Qin would like to make alliance contract with us, I’d like to exhort princes of other states to order their troops being withdrawn, otherwise, Kingdom Jin would ally with all vassals to deal against Qin.”



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