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【每週成語】
草木皆兵

楊愛民

成語:草木皆兵(CAO MU JIE BING): All grass and trees are mistaken as enemy soldiers—being too afraid for routed army or beaten soldiers.
出處:晉書,符堅的故事。
釋義:形容敗兵的心情,變得驚慌失措,膽小如鼠,到了精神錯亂的程度。
故事: 東晉時代,北方大秦國天王符堅發動80萬大軍侵略東晉。晉國大將謝石、謝玄,領兵8萬前去抵抗。符堅聽說晉軍人數很少,就採取速戰速決策略,希望一舉將敵人擊敗。可是,出乎意外地,謝的部下劉牢之獨出奇兵殺死了符堅的大將梁成和他的一萬多人。此時,符堅站在壽陰(今安徽省壽縣)城上,發現晉軍的隊伍十分嚴整,將士非常精銳,突然變得害怕起來。再遠遠望去八公山(今安徽省鳳臺縣東,肥水以北)上,有茂盛的草木,符堅誤以為是晉兵;符堅膽怯地用手指指著那些樹木對旁邊的弟弟符融說,“這是強有力的敵人哦!怎麼能夠說晉軍少呢?”然後,謝玄在肥水把符堅軍打得大敗。淹死在肥水裡的秦軍,簡直把肥水塞斷了。同時,符融陣亡,符堅中箭受傷,他帶著殘部倉皇向淮北逃跑。一路上聽到風聲及仙鶴的叫聲,都以為是晉軍追上來了。
用法:1949,我們96軍輜重營退守白沙鎮,如驚弓之鳥,看到樹木有個風吹草動,就用重機槍胡亂掃射。心裡太緊張了,真是“風聲鶴唳,草木皆兵”。
故事英譯:In the East Jin Period, the commander-in-chief of the former Kingdom Qin Fu Jian led his great troops of eight hundred thousand men to invade East Jin, and the key generals, Xie Shi and Xie Xuan, led an army of eighty thousand soldiers went to fight against Fu Jian’s great troops. Fu Jian got the information that the numbers of the troops of Jin was small, so he took the policy of being quick combat and wanted to defeat the enemy quickly. However, unexpectedly the General Liu Lao Zhi, who was a subordinate of Xie, took the ingenious military move and killed Fu Jian’s subordinate General Liang Cheng and his troops of more than ten thousand men. Meanwhile Fu Jian was standing at the city wall of Shou Ying City (Shou Xian, An Hui today) and looked that Jin’s troops were in a gallant array, the generals and soldiers were very elite. All of a sudden, Fu Jian became coward. He looked farther away at the Mt. Ba Gong (Feng Tai Xian, An Hui, the northern area of Fei River today) lots of grass and trees on the mountain were mistaken by Fu Jian as Jin’s soldiers. Fu Jian cowardly pointed with fingers at the trees and said to his brother Fu Rong beside him, “they are the powerful enemies! How could it be said that Jin’s troops are small?”
Afterward, Xie Xuan defeated Fu Jian at Fei River (Shou County of An Hui today) badly. Drowned soldiers of Qin in the Fei River almost blocked the water flowing. In the meantime, Fu Rong was killed while Fu Jian was injured by an arrow and led his remnants of his routed troops fled to Huai Bei hurriedly. On the way of retreat, he was mistaken the sound of wind blowing and crying of cranes as arrival of pursuing troops. The war at Fei River is a famous war in Chinese history, which ended up the Former Qin Dynasty of Fu Jian and established the Jin Dynasty.
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