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【每週成語】
東道主人

楊愛民

成語:東道主人(DONG DAO ZHU REN): A host at a dinner party; East is substitute of hosts, West is substitute of guests.
出處:鄭國燭之武傳。
釋義:東為主,作東的意思即出錢請客。此語來自燭之武的話,燭之武見秦伯曰,“若舍鄭為東道主。。。”
故事:春秋時代,晉國公子重耳逃亡到鄭國的時候,鄭國將城門關上,不讓重耳一行進城。後來,重耳回國做了國君,為了報當年鄭國敵視之仇,就約會秦國圍攻鄭國。正文公很害怕,派特使燭之武去勸說秦穆公退兵。燭之武到了秦營,士兵讓他進去,他接近秦營總部時,禁不住放聲大哭。秦兵將他帶到秦穆公面前。秦穆公問他,“你為什麼哭?” 燭之武說,“我為鄭國哭,也為秦國哭。”他接著說,“鄭國在晉國之東,秦國在晉國之西,若鄭國滅亡了,晉國即顯得更強,而秦國相對的便顯得弱。幫助別國打仗而使自己國家變弱,聰明人不會這樣做。”
秦穆公聽了,非常吃驚,連說,“對,很對!”
燭之武繼續說,“若是秦國願意撤兵解圍,鄭國就脫離楚國,像僕人服侍主人一樣服從秦國。如果讓鄭國作東邊道上的主人的話,鄭國願意提供秦國在東方鄭國的旅遊者必須的物品。這樣對你絲毫沒有損害呀!”秦穆公聽到這裡,非常高興,立即與燭之武訂盟,派他的三個將軍杞子,逢孫,和楊孫,到鄭國駐防。秦穆公自己帶領大軍偷偷地回國了。晉國見秦國背盟,不得不撤兵。於是,鄭國之圍遂解。
用法:張三對李四說,“今天你中了大獎,要作‘東道主人’了。”
故事英譯:During the Era of Spring and Autumn, when Prince Zhong Er of Kingdom Jin fled to Kingdom Zheng, King of Zheng closed the gate, refused him to enter the city. Afterward, Prince Zhong Er returned motherland Jin enthroned as the ruler of Kingdom Jin, who, in order to revenge King of Zheng’s hostility to him when he was fleeing at Zheng, so he united Kingdom Qin to attack Zheng. Duke Wen of Zheng feared and dispatched his envoy Zhu Zhi Wu going to the headquarters camp of Qin trying to see Duke and persuade Duke Mu of Qin to retreat his troops. When Zhu Zhi Wu reached the Qin’s camp, soldiers of Qin let him enter the camp of Qin, in the meantime, he could not but cry loudly. Qin’s guards took him to the face of Duke Mu of Qin, asked him by Duke Mu of Qin, “Why do you cry?” “I cry for both Kingdom Zheng and Kingdom Qin,” Zhu Zhi Wu said. “Kingdom Zheng is at the east side of Kingdom Jin and Kingdom Qin is at the west of Kingdom Jin, once Kingdom Zheng was perished, Kingdom Jin may show stronger, meanwhile, Kingdom Qin will be comparatively weaker. To combat for helping other state will cause one’s own state weaker, a wise man will never do such things like that” Zhu Zhi Wu said.
Duke Mu of Qin shocked hearing Zhu Zhi Wu’s analyses and repeatedly said, “You’re right, very right!”
Zhu Zhi Wu continued, “If Kingdom Qin would like to retreat her troops and Zheng’s siege will be released immediately, then, Kingdom Zheng will be separated with Kingdom Chu and would like to be a state depends on Qin and serves Qin like a servant serving his lord. If you let Zheng be the host on the east way to offer what Qin’s travelers need as they are traveling in the east Zheng. And there will never be harmful to you.”
Duke Mu of Qin, hearing Zhu Zhi Wu’s saying, was very pleased, and aligned an alliance treaty with Zhu Zhi Wu at once, and ordered his three generals, Qi Zi, Feng Sun, and Yang Sun, went to Kingdom Zheng for helping Zheng’s defense, Duke Mu of Qin himself led his main army going homeland secretly. Kingdom Jin found that Qin had pulled back their troops, Jin could not but pull back her troops, and the siege of Zheng had been released.


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