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【每週成語】
形單影隻

楊愛民

成語:形單影隻(XING DAN YING ZHI): to be all alone; only me and my shadow; a solitary form, a single shade-extremely lonely; a lone soul; be all on one’s own; to be left alone with only one’s own shadow; absolutely solitary.
出處:唐,韓愈的“祭十二郎文”。
釋義:顧名思義是孤獨一人,無依無靠,非常可憐的樣子。由兩個詞“形單”和“影隻”結合在一起,更凸顯孤苦伶仃的感受。
故事:唐朝大文學家韓愈,字退之,是中國文學史上數一數二的大古文家。他的文章綜合了各家文章的優點,推陳出新,變化無窮;承先啟後,對後世文壇影響非常深遠。他為人正直,在外做官,頗有名氣,尤其被貶到沛州時深得民眾的敬仰。
韓愈的家庭自幼就人丁單薄,兄長早死,唯一的後代十二郎,又先他而逝,在其有名的“祭十二郎文”中有如下的一段:“我有三個哥哥,不幸皆早年離開人世。能夠繼承祖先香火者,在孫子輩只有你,在兒子輩就是我。兩世一身,形單影隻。嫂曾撫汝背指吾而言曰,‘韓氏兩世,唯此而已。‘ 汝時猶小,當不記憶,吾時雖能記憶,亦未知其言之悲也。”
用法:國共內戰時期,許多父母把自己的兒子都送出外地避難。後來一旦老伴去世,留下一個人孤苦伶仃地過活,這種 “形單影隻”的慘況,在新中國成立初期是屢見不鮮的。
故事英譯:The great literary magnate, named Han Yu, styled Tui Zhi, was the number one or so of the Classical Chinese in Chinese Literary History. He combined the advantages of other writers’ articles into his essays and he let his compositions bring the new from the old, which had infinite changes. He succeeded his articles to carry on the past heritage and open up the future which influenced the literary world profound and lasting. He was righteous with firm will; he was a well-known good official, especially was respected and admired by people when he was downgraded to be the governor of Pei Zhou.
In generations of Han’s family, there were few boys to be kinship inheritance. Han Yu’s only elder brother died very young and the only single heir Shi Er Lang (the 12th boy) was his nephew who carry on hs family line died before Han Yu. There is such a paragraph in his funeral oration to his nephew, Shi Er Lang: “I have three elder brothers, unfortunately they all passed away when they were young. The one who can inherit the Han’s kinship inheritance is only you in grandchildren generation and only me in son-generation. We two generations, you and me, are alone, no brother and no sister. My sister-in-law once had patted your back and said before me, “In Han’s family there are you and me in the two generations. At that time, you’re too young to remember it, I although can vaguely remember the matter but I couldn’t apprehend the profound sadness and grief in her speech.”


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