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【楊愛民】
刎頸之交

楊愛民

成語:刎頸之交(WEN JING ZHI JIAO): Damon and Pythias ; a friendship to the death; a friendship that would lead person to die for each other; bosom friends who are willing to die for one another; friends sworn to death; intimate friendship cut one’s own throat for friend’s sake.
出處:史記,廉頗、藺相如傳。
釋義:形容友誼深厚,甘願為對方兩肋插刀,犧牲生命在所不惜。同義詞:莫逆之交;生死之交;達蒙、西皮厄斯之交。心腹之交。
故事:戰國時代,趙惠王因為藺相如為趙國立有大功,所以升他為上卿,地位在老將軍廉頗之上。因此,廉頗非常嫉恨他,並揚言要當面侮辱藺相如。藺相如得知此事後,託病不再上朝,不願在朝上與廉頗爭位次。
有一天,藺相如乘車外出,遠遠望見廉頗的車隊迎面而來,連忙叫車夫將車駛入附近一小巷躲避,讓廉頗的車子先過去,然後自己的車子再小巷出來,繼續他們的行程。藺相如的隨從很不高興,認為藺相如怕廉頗。藺相如對他們解釋說,“今天強秦所以不敢侵略趙國是因為有廉頗將軍和我二人在。如果我和他鬧起來,如同兩隻老虎相鬥,必有一傷。那時,秦國就利用這個機會侵略趙國。我所以對廉頗將軍忍讓乃是為了國家的安全,而不是為了個人的恩怨緣故。”從此以後,藺相如的隨從了解藺相如忍讓的原因,也都能對廉頗的隨從處處忍讓。但廉頗卻更驕傲了。
趙國有位名士,名虞卿,知道了這件事,在獲得趙王的許可後,去拜訪廉頗。解釋清楚了藺相如對他所以忍讓的原因後,廉頗感覺萬分慚愧。便脫去上衣,赤背上綁了一根荊杖,請人領著到藺相如家跪地請罪;並深切的悔悟前非。藺相如見他這樣,便親自為他解去荊杖,請他到客廳裡說話。從此他們二人成為刎頸之交。
用法:歷史上可稱為“刎頸之交”的人物並不少,北宋的楊家將孟良和焦贊可算是一對。
故事英譯:During the Era of Warring States, King Hui of Kingdom Zhao promoted Lin Xiang Ru as a superior administer, whose position was even higher than old General Lian Po, because Lin had made great merits for Kingdom Zhao. Therefore Lian Po resented Lin very much and announced that he would insult Lin face to face. Knowing such a situation, Lin Xiang Ru often pretended being sick as an excuse to be absent at the court, for avoiding to dispute about the seat with Lian Po.
One day, Lin Xiang Ru went out riding of a carriage and saw that Lian Po’s carriage was oncoming far away, ordered immediately his driver to drive his carriage into a small lane nearby for shunning Lian Po’s carriage, and let Lian Po’s team passed over first, then Lin’s team came out from the lane and continued their advance. Lin’s retinues were unhappy for that they thought Lin Xiang Ru feared Lian Po. Lin explained to them, said,” Today, why the strong Kingdom Qin dared not to invade our nation, because there are two tough men in our country: General Lian Po and I. If General Lian and I stuck at conflict each other that are like two tigers fighting each other, one of them must be harmed at last. Then, Qin would take advantage of the opportunity of our discord aggressed upon Zhao. That is why I always yield to General Lian Po. My yielding to Lian Po is not for individual sake but for our national security. “Since then, all Lin Xiang Ru’s followers understood the cause why Lin always endured Lian Po’s arrogance, and they all would like to yield Lian Po’s suites at every aspect. Anyway, General Lian Po was showed more proud.
There was a gentleman in Zhao, named Yu Qing, heard such an event, with the agreement of King of Zhao, went to visit General Pian Po. Yu Qing explained the cause why Lin Xiang Ru always yielded to him. After the explanation of Yu Qing, Genera Lian Po was so deeply regretful that he took off his upper clothes and let his men to tie a thorn stick at his bare back, led him to Lin Xiang Ru’s mansion, and knelt down to admit his errors and willing to receive the beating-punishment by Lin Xiang Ru. Lin, seeing such a situation, went personally to untie Lian Po’s thorn stick, and let Pian Po sit in his guest room for a honesty and happy conversation. Since then, they had become life-and-death friends.


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