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【每週成語】
清規戒律

楊愛民

成語:清規戒律(QING GUI JIE LV): Sacred rules of the religious orders; interdictions and taboos; outmoded and conventions; restrictions and fetters; taboos and commandments; taboos and reputations; dharma of Buddhists.
出處:馬南頓 “燕山夜話”。
釋義:清規戒律非常複雜而多,很多陳舊過時,不符合實際。甚而有些吹毛求疵。所以現代人用“清規戒律”此一成語形容陳舊繁瑣、不合理的規章制度。
故事:古時候有個和尚名懷海,從印度來到中國,定居於洪州百丈山,即今天的江西南昌市。懷海覺得佛門應該有嚴肅的紀律讓和尚遵守。因為這些條規是要和尚遵守的,所以又叫“清規”。又因為是在百丈山上制定的,所以又叫“百丈清規,禪門日頌”。
魏廢帝(曹芳)時代,一個印度和尚名尚曇摩迦羅來到中國,先後到過洛陽,許昌。他發現佛寺中的和尚在行為上沒有什麼約束,就從印度的三藏(經、律、論)裡面翻譯出來“四分律”和“僧祗戒心圖”,讓佛門中人遵守。這是中國佛門具有戒律之始。後來,又有五戒(戒殺、盜、淫、妄、酒),十戒,比丘戒(250條),比丘尼戒(350條),菩薩戒(90條)等。佛門中人很重視這些戒律,認為 “佛滅度後,以戒為師”。意思是菩薩已經往生,和尚、尼姑們要把戒律當作老師。這些“清規”、“戒律”,加起來一大堆,有些是吹毛求疵的。所以人們把它們簡化為成語“清規戒律”來形容一些繁瑣脫離現實的規章制度。
用法:那家保險公司的“清規戒律”隱藏在小字中,勿受其表面的福利矇騙。
故事英譯: In ancient times, there was a monk, named Huai Hai, came to China from India and settled in a Buddhism Temple in Bai Zhang Mountain in Nan Chang City, Jiang Xi Province today. Huai Hai found that there should be serious dharma in the Buddhism monastery; so he himself created the rules and regulations and let the monks to comply with. Because the rules and regulations were made for the monks to obey, so they were called “Pure Rules”. Yet those dharma was completed in Bai Zhang Mountain, so it also called “Bai Zhang Pure Dharma and Lessons chanted daily.”
During the period of Emperor Fei (Cao Fang)of Kingdom Wei, there was a monk named Tan-mu Jia-luo came to China from India and he had been successively Luo Yang and Xu Chang. He found that the monks’ behaviors had not been restricted, so he picked up San Zang (Tripitaka=the sutras; the taboos; the analects) and translated from Indian religious doctrines into “the four dharma” and “Monks Dharma Icons”, which let Buddhists comply with and was the source of that China has Dharma.
Afterward, in China’s monasteries, there were five dharma (prohibiting of killing, robbery, promiscuousness, absurdity, and liquor); ten Dharma; Buddhist Monks Dharma (250 items); Buddhist Nuns Dharma (350 items); Buddha Dharma (90 items). Buddhists considered the Dharma very important and thought that “after Buddha had gone to Sukhavati (West Heaven), Buddhists regarded the Dharma as the master. It meant that Buddha had died, monks, nuns, and secular Buddhist devotees should consider the Buddhism rules as the teacher. There are too many items of Buddhism rules and interdictions, and some of them are fastidious (nitpick), so people simplified them as a idiom “Buddhists’ taboos and interdictions” to describe any rules and systems which have been cumbersome and out of reality.



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