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【每週成語】
作法自斃

楊愛民

成語:作法自斃(ZUO FA ZI BI): to make laws only to fall foul of it by one’s own laws (device); to be hoist with ( by) one’s own petard; to be injured by one’s own intention as a snare for others; do things harmful to oneself; to take a brick to crush one’s own feet.
出處;史記,商君列傳。
釋義:自己犯了自己立的法。為一負面成語,自己設計害人反而害了自己。自己搬磚砸自己的腳。
故事: 戰國時代,秦孝公為了進一步改革政策以便使秦國更加富強,決心變法。他任用當時有名的政治家商鞅為宰相,商鞅制訂新法並使之立即生效。商鞅的變法的主要內容如下:
一. 編定戶籍,加強內部管理。
二. 一家如有兩個兒子,長大成年後必須分家,各自獨立生產維持生活,如此可防止互相依賴的習慣。
三. 所有公民必須努力耕種、紡織,凡產量超過平均值者可免除徭役,以加強秦國的經濟力。
四. 重新固定爵位,獎勵對外作戰有功的人員。
五. 凡是沒有軍功的貴族,廢除其原來的爵位;取消貴族世襲的權利。
六. 建立以縣為單位的行政制度,形成中央集權制度。
七. 廢除井田制,准許土地自由買賣。
八. 統一度量衡制。
商鞅變法內容完全符合當時秦國生產發展及軍事擴張的要求。所以不到十年,秦國實力大增。不過,商鞅變法得罪了不少貴族,所以在秦孝公死後,一般反對變法的人便到秦惠王面前告商鞅造反。秦惠王當太子時和商鞅不和,所以就下令捉拿商鞅。商鞅被逼逃至關下,想在一個小客棧歇歇腳,那客棧主人不認識商鞅,對他說,“以照商鞅的法律,凡客棧主人不驗明客人身份而讓他住宿者,便處以死刑。”商鞅聽了嘆道,“想不到法的副作用竟然如此的可怕!”說罷繼續逃亡到魏國。
用法:韓國的總統多數沒有好下場,都是犯了自己所定的法律,可以說是“作法自斃”。
故事英譯:During the Era of Warring States, Duke Xiao of Kingdom Qin in order to reform his policy and strengthen his national power, he decided to change the laws, so he appointed Shang Yang, the famous politician at that time, to be his premier for making new regulations and laws, and let the new laws go into force immediately. The contents of Shang Yang’s reform-laws were as following:
1. Edited household registration for strengthening the control of citizens.
2. If there were two sons in a family, they must be divided into an independent household when they grew up as adults for preventing to depend one another.
3. All the citizens must engage in farming and weaving diligently, if they could produce more the amount than average, they could be privileged free from conscription, for increasing Qin’s economic strength.
4. Rearranged the nobles and rewarded those nobles who had merits in wars against foreign enemies.
5. Abolish all the original nobles who had no military achievements and their hereditary.
6. Established county as the administration-system unit for practicing the centralization of authority.
7. Abolished the nine-square-farm system, allowed people to trade their lands freely.
8. Unified the systems of weight and measures.
The contents of Shang Yang’s reforms were totally adapted the request of the economic development and the military expanse of Kingdom Qin at that time, so within a decade the national power of Qin was much stronger than before. However, the reforms of laws by Shang Yang offended a lot of nobles and officials, and after the death of the old ruler Duke Xiao, those who disagreed with Shang Yang’s reforms went to King Hui of Qin, the new ruler, to tip Shang Yang for revolting against the Court. Previously the crowned princes, now King Hui of Qin, discorded with Shang Yang, so King Hui gave order to arrest Shang Yang. Shang Yang was forced to fleeing to Guan Xia, wanted to take a rest in a small inn, but the owner of the inn who didn’t know Shang Yang, and said, “According Shang Yang’s reformed laws, anyone inn-owner who allowed a customer to stay in his inn without identifying the customer’s status will be punished by death.” Shang Yang said with a sigh,”unexpectedly the laws’ side-effect is so awful!” Then, he continued his escape, and reached Kingdom Wei.



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