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【楊愛民】
及鋒而試

楊愛民

成語:及鋒而試(JI FENG ER SHI): to strike the iron while it is hot; to have a go when it at one’s peak; try to adopt actions when he reaches its strongest; to take advantage of its sharpest try to use it; to try while the point is sharp; to attack when army kept up high morale; to come up to the tip of bayonet and try.
出處:史記,高祖本紀。(韓信的獻策)。
釋義:乘銳氣衝鋒;乘劍鋒銳利時使用它,會收到良好效果。類似語:趁熱打鐵;乘勝追擊。
故事:秦朝末年,項羽軍大敗秦軍,佔領秦都咸陽,殺了秦皇子嬰(秦始皇孫)。然後,項羽封他自己為西楚霸王。當時劉邦是一個很有勢力的諸侯,項羽封他為漢王,讓他統治漢中地方。其他諸侯也都封了王。那年四月,沒有戰事,各諸侯都率領其部隊到自己的封邑去了。漢王劉邦也領著自己的軍隊開始向漢中出發。其時,項羽給他三萬士卒,又有一些楚軍和其他諸侯的部隊約兩萬人都傾向劉邦,也加入了劉邦的部隊。可是,當他們抵達劉邦首都南鄭(今陝西南部)時,很多官兵都逃跑了,因為他們多來自中國東方。當時,劉邦之大將韓信向劉邦獻計,說,“許多對項羽有功德諸侯都封了王,而你卻被封到這樣偏僻的地方,是被貶低了。大多數官兵都想回家,他們都患了思鄉病。所以你應該趁勢偷襲項軍,你將有成功的機會。當形勢穩定下來,這個氣勢就消失了。所以我認為你現在應該做一個決定,最好向東追擊項軍,這是和項羽爭奪天下的最好機會。”
劉邦接受了韓信的建議;最後,劉邦打敗項羽,登基為漢朝開國皇帝。
用法:“及鋒而試”雖然有其利用價值,但是,準備不週,輕率從事,可能造成無法彌補的損失。1949年10月25日共軍勢如破竹,席捲整個大陸。主其事者(饒漱石)犯了驕兵必敗的毛病,認為攻打金門應該是(A PIECE OF CASE)小事一樁;他不聽陳毅的勸告,草率從事,執意攻金,結果大意失荊州,造成全軍覆沒。金門戰役影響深遠,更造成國家的分裂。直至今天,國家仍在分裂中。“及鋒而試”豈可隨意而試?兵家用兵能不慎乎?!
故事英譯:In the last year of Qin Dynasty, Qin’s army was defeated badly by Xiang Yu’s troops, and Xian Yang , the capital of Qin had been occupied by Xian Yu’s army; Zi Ying, the king of Qin and the grandson of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, was killed by Xian Yu. Then, Xiang Yu was entitled himself as West Supreme Overlord. He conferred Liu Bang, one of the powerful overlords, as King Han and let him dominate the area of Han Zhong (the southern part of Shanxi and the northern area of Hu Bei today). Other vassals were separately entitled kings. In April that year, there were no combat activities and all vassals led their troops going to their fiefdoms. King Han Liu Bang led his men and was going to fiefdom Han Zhong. In the meantime, Xiang Yu gave Liu Bang 30 thousand soldiers, and there were other 20 thousand men who were Chu’s troops and other vassals’ men preferred Liu Bang and were following Liu Bang’s group. However, when they reached Nan Zheng (southern area of Shanxi today) , Liu Bang’s capital city, many of Liu Bang’s officials and soldiers ran away, because they wanted to return their native place in the East of China. Meanwhile, General Han Xin, a general Liu Bang, said to Liu Bang, “ many vassals who had contribution to Xiang Yu have been conferred with kings, but you are bestowed such a remote area, you’re belittled. Most soldiers are coming from Shan Dong, the eastern state; they have suffered homesickness and always wanted to go home, for they have been suffering of homesickness. So you should take advantage of such a momentum to ambush Xiang Yu’s troops, and you would have the possibility of success. When the situation has been settled down, the advantage would be disappeared. I think that you are better to make a decision now to go to forward east for fighting against Xiang Yu, it’s the best opportunity to take the throne with Xiang Yu. ”
Liu Bang accepted Han Xin’s suggestion; finally Liu Bang got the last victory and ascended to the throne, becoming the first emperor of Han Dynasty.


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